The history of mood swings recurrence has a significant impact on the current psychological condition of the patient. brought about by menopause. The current psychological state of the patient is due to her history of mood issues. this makes her prone to mood swings throughout the menopause period. The patient is going through the maniac state, explaining the loss of sleep, increased energy, elation, and spending.
In accordance to her psychological history, this condition has persisted for sometime. bipolar disorders persist for a long period. Based on medical facts, the symptoms of menopause repeatedly persist in post- menopause phase. Vasomotor symptoms are evident and are displayed by the patient. Examples of these symptoms include. hot flashes leading to lack of sleep at night and mood changes leading to aggression- continually spending money on various items.
The appropriate treatment for the patient under investigation is referral to a psychological health specialist. This approach is necessary so the medical practitioner can determine if the symptoms are due to menopause or by the psychological illness (Akiskal, & Tohen, 2011).
As per the patient under evaluation, the symptoms are due to psychological illness. Medication administered to the patient is a combination of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotic medication. Mood stabilizers aid in stabilizing maniac symptoms, limiting risk factors like self harm and reducing future episodes. Mood stabilizer drugs include. lithium, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate, and valproate. Antipsychotic drugs and or benzodiazepine are included to the mood stabilizers so as to subside mania. Examples of antipsychotic drugs include. olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole. According to the maniac symptoms of the patient, clonazepam must be used to treat the maniac qualities (Suppes, Dennehy, & Suppes, 2012).
The most effective treatment according to the patient’s diagnosis is supportive psychotherapy, prescribed pharmaceutical drugs, and psycho education. Psychotherapeutic methods are helpful in controlling the disorder. this is a permanent treatment plan. Examples of methods include. cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. Psycho education teaches the affected individuals and their families about their disorder and effective treatment. in management of the condition.
Pathophysiological concept of the condition in relation to the case study
Bipolar disorders and depressed moods during the menopause transition occur as a result of dysfunction of neurotransmitters or chemical messengers in the brain. Neurotransmitters or chemical messengers involved include. neropinephrine, gamma- amino butyrate (GABA), acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine. The dysfunctional neurotransmitters may lie dormant for a while self activation may take place, or they are activated by external factors. External factors include. psychological stress, medications, and environmental factors (Huether, & McCance, 2012). In this case, activation of the dysfunctional chemical messengers is due to menopause transition. which is an example of an environmental stress. Dysfunctional neurotransmitters activation brings about symptoms as exhibited by the patient.
Pathophysiological concept map regarding the case study
Environmental stress (menopause transition)
Unbalanced chemical messengers Endocrine dysfunction
Over stimulated dysfunctional hormone production
Recurrent mood episodes
Akiskal, H. S., & Tohen, M. (2011). Bipolar psychopharmacology: Caring for the patient.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology. St. Louis, Mo:
Miklowitz, D. J. (2011). The bipolar disorder survival guide: What you and your family need to
know. New York: Guilford Press.
Suppes, T., Dennehy, E. B., & Suppes, T. (2012). Bipolar disorder assessment and treatment.
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.